Manage authorization with granular role-based permissions in your Laravel Apps.

Last update: Jul 25, 2022

Governor For Laravel

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Governor for Laravel

Manage authorization with granular role-based permissions in your Laravel apps.

screencast 2017-06-04 at 3 34 56 pm

Goal

Provide a simple method of managing ACL in a Laravel application built on the Laravel Authorization functionality. By leveraging Laravel's native Authorization functionality there is no additional learning or implementation curve. All you need to know is Laravel, and you will know how to use Governor for Laravel.

Requirements

  • PHP >=7.1.3
  • Laravel >= 5.5
  • Bootstrap 3 (needs to be included in your layout file)
  • FontAwesome 4 (needs to be included in your layout file)

Installation

The user with the lowest primary key will be set up as the SuperAdmin. If you're starting on a new project, be sure to add an initial user now. If you already have users, you can update the role-user entry to point to your intended user, if the first user is not the intended SuperAdmin. Now let's get the package installed.

Install via composer:

composer require genealabs/laravel-governor

Implementation

  1. First we need to update the database by running the migrations and data seeders:

    php artisan migrate --path="vendor/genealabs/laravel-governor/database/migrations"
    php artisan db:seed --class=LaravelGovernorDatabaseSeeder
  2. If you have seeders of your own, run them now:

    php artisan db:seed
  3. Next, assign permissions (this requires you have users already populated):

    php artisan db:seed --class=LaravelGovernorPermissionsTableSeeder
  4. Now we need to make the assets available:

    php artisan governor:publish --assets
  5. Lastly, add the Governable trait to the User model of your app:

    // [...]
    use GeneaLabs\LaravelGovernor\Traits\Governable;
    
    class User extends Authenticatable
    {
        use Governable;
        // [...]
    }

Upgrading

The following upgrade guides should help navigate updates with breaking changes.

From 0.11.5+ to 0.12 [Breaking]

The role_user pivot table has replaced the composite key with a primary key, as Laravel does not fully support composite keys. Run:

php artisan db:seed --class="LaravelGovernorUpgradeTo0120"

From 0.11 to 0.11.5 [Breaking]

The primary keys of the package's tables have been renamed. (This should have been a minor version change, instead of a patch, as this was a breaking change.) Run:

php artisan db:seed --class="LaravelGovernorUpgradeTo0115"

From 0.10 to 0.11 [Breaking]

The following traits have changed:

  • Governable has been renamed to Governing.
  • Governed has been renamed to Governable.
  • the governor_created_by has been renamed to governor_owned_by. Run migrations to update your tables.
    php artisan db:seed --class="LaravelGovernorUpgradeTo0110"
  • replace any reference in your app from governor_created_by to governor_owned_by.

From 0.6 to Version 0.10 [Breaking]

To upgrade from version previous to 0.10.0, first run the migrations and seeders, then run the update seeder:

php artisan migrate --path="vendor/genealabs/laravel-governor/database/migrations"
php artisan db:seed --class="LaravelGovernorDatabaseSeeder"
php artisan db:seed --class="LaravelGovernorUpgradeTo0100"

to 0.6 [Breaking]

  1. If you were extending GeneaLabs\LaravelGovernor\Policies\LaravelGovernorPolicy, change to extend GeneaLabs\LaravelGovernor\Policies\BasePolicy;
  2. Support for version of Laravel lower than 5.5 has been dropped.

Configuration

If you need to make any changes (see Example selection below for the default config file) to the default configuration, publish the configuration file:

php artisan governor:publish --config

and make any necessary changes. (We don't recommend publishing the config file if you don't need to make any changes.)

Views

If you would like to customize the views, publish them:

php artisan governor:publish --views

and edit them in resources\views\vendor\genealabs\laravel-governor.

Policies

Policies are now auto-detected and automatically added to the entities list. You will no longer need to manage Entities manually. New policies will be available for role assignment when editing roles. Check out the example policy in the Examples section below. See Laravel's documentation on how to create policies and check for them in code: https://laravel.com/docs/5.4/authorization#writing-policies

Your policies must extend LaravelGovernorPolicy in order to function with Governor. By default you do not need to include any of the methods, as they are implemented automatically and perform checks based on reflection. However, if you need to customize anything, you are free to override any of the before, create, edit, view, inspect, and remove methods.

Checking Authorization

To validate a user against a given policy, use one of the keywords that Governor validates against: before, create, edit, view, inspect, and remove. For example, if the desired policy to check has a class name of BlogPostPolicy, you would authorize your user with something like $user->can('create', (new BlogPost)) or $user->can('edit', $blogPost).

Filter Queries To Show Ownly Allowed Items

Often it is desirable to let the user see only the items that they have access to. This was previously difficult and tedious. Using Nova as an example, you can now limit the index view as follows: ```php <?php namespace App\Nova;

use Laravel\Nova\Resource as NovaResource;
use Laravel\Nova\Http\Requests\NovaRequest;

abstract class Resource extends NovaResource
{
    public static function indexQuery(NovaRequest $request, $query)
    {
        $model = $query->getModel();

        if ($model
            && is_object($model)
            && method_exists($model, "filterViewAnyable")
        ) {
            $query = $model->filterViewAnyable($query);
        }

        return $query;
    }

    // ...
}
```

The available query filters are:
- `filterDeletable(Builder $query)`
- `filterUpdatable(Builder $query)`
- `filterViewable(Builder $query)`
- `filterViewAnyable(Builder $query)`

The same functionality is availabe via model scopes, as well:
- `deletable()`
- `updatable()`
- `viewable()`
- `viewAnyable()`

Tables

Tables will automatically be updated with a governor_owned_by column that references the user that created the entry. There is no more need to run separate migrations or work around packages that have models without a created_by property.

Admin Views

The easiest way to integrate Governor for Laravel into your app is to add the menu items to the relevant section of your app's menu (make sure to restrict access appropriately using the Laravel Authorization methods). The following routes can be added:

  • Role Management: genealabs.laravel-governor.roles.index
  • User-Role Assignments: genealabs.laravel-governor.assignments.index

For example:

<li><a href="{{ route('genealabs.laravel-governor.roles.index') }}">Governor</a></li>

403 Unauthorized

We recommend making a custom 403 error page to let the user know they don't have access. Otherwise the user will just see the default error message. See https://laravel.com/docs/5.4/errors#custom-http-error-pages for more details on how to set those up.

Authorization API

You can check a user's ability to perform certain actions via a public API. It is recommended to use Laravel Passport to maintain session state between your client and your backend. Here's an example that checks if the currently logged in user can create GeneaLabs\LaravelGovernor\Role model records:

$response = $this
    ->json(
        "GET",
        route('genealabs.laravel-governor.api.user-can.show', "create"),
        [
            "model" => "GeneaLabs\LaravelGovernor\Role",
        ]
    );

This next example checks if the user can edit GeneaLabs\LaravelGovernor\Role model records:

$response = $this
    ->json(
        "GET",
        route('genealabs.laravel-governor.api.user-can.show', "edit"),
        [
            "model" => "GeneaLabs\LaravelGovernor\Role",
            "primary-key" => 1,
        ]
    );

The abilities inspect, edit, and remove, except create and view, require the primary key to be passed.

Role-Check API

// TODO: add documentation

$response = $this
    ->json(
        "GET",
        route('genealabs.laravel-governor.api.user-is.show', "SuperAdmin")
    );

Examples

Config File

<?php

return [

    /*
    |--------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Layout Blade File
    |--------------------------------------------------------------------------
    |
    | This value is used to reference your main layout blade view to render
    | the views provided by this package. The layout view referenced here
    | should include Bootstrap 3 and FontAwesome 4 to work as intended.
    */
    'layout-view' => 'layouts.app',

    /*
    |--------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Layout Content Section Name
    |--------------------------------------------------------------------------
    |
    | Specify the name of the section in the view referenced above that is
    | used to render the main page content. If this does not match, you
    | will only get blank pages when accessing views in Governor.
    */
    'content-section' => 'content',

    /*
    |--------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | Authorization Model
    |--------------------------------------------------------------------------
    |
    | Here you can customize what model should be used for authorization checks
    | in the event that you have customized your authentication processes.
    */
    'auth-model' => config('auth.providers.users.model') ?? config('auth.model'),

    /*
    |--------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | User Model Name Property
    |--------------------------------------------------------------------------
    |
    | This value is used to display your users when assigning them to roles.
    | You can choose any property of your auth-model defined above that is
    | exposed via JSON.
    */
    'user-name-property' => 'name',

    /*
    |--------------------------------------------------------------------------
    | URL Prefix
    |--------------------------------------------------------------------------
    |
    | If you want to change the URL used by the browser to access the admin
    | pages, you can do so here. Be careful to avoid collisions with any
    | existing URLs of your app when doing so.
    */
    'url-prefix' => '/genealabs/laravel-governor/',
];

Policy

No Methods Required For Default Policies

Adding policies is crazily simple! All the work has been refactored out so all you need to worry about now is creating a policy class, and that's it!

<?php namespace GeneaLabs\LaravelGovernor\Policies;

use GeneaLabs\LaravelGovernor\Interfaces\GovernablePolicy;
use Illuminate\Auth\Access\HandlesAuthorization;

class MyPolicy extends LaravelGovernorPolicy
{
    use HandlesAuthorization;
}

Default Methods In A Policy Class

Adding any of the before, create, update, view, viewAny, delete, restore, and forceDelete methods to your policy is only required if you want to customize a given method.

abstract class BasePolicy
{
    public function before($user)
    {
        return $user->hasRole("SuperAdmin")
            ?: null;
    }

    public function create(Model $user) : bool
    {
        return $this->validatePermissions(
            $user,
            'create',
            $this->entity
        );
    }

    public function update(Model $user, Model $model) : bool
    {
        return $this->validatePermissions(
            $user,
            'update',
            $this->entity,
            $model->governor_owned_by
        );
    }

    public function viewAny(Model $user) : bool
    {
        return true;

        return $this->validatePermissions(
            $user,
            'viewAny',
            $this->entity
        );
    }

    public function view(Model $user, Model $model) : bool
    {
        return $this->validatePermissions(
            $user,
            'view',
            $this->entity,
            $model->governor_owned_by
        );
    }

    public function delete(Model $user, Model $model) : bool
    {
        return $this->validatePermissions(
            $user,
            'delete',
            $this->entity,
            $model->governor_owned_by
        );
    }

    public function restore(Model $user, Model $model) : bool
    {
        return $this->validatePermissions(
            $user,
            'restore',
            $this->entity,
            $model->governor_owned_by
        );
    }

    public function forceDelete(Model $user, Model $model) : bool
    {
        return $this->validatePermissions(
            $user,
            'forceDelete',
            $this->entity,
            $model->governor_owned_by
        );
    }
}

GitHub

https://github.com/GeneaLabs/laravel-governor
Comments
  • 1. New Entity problem

    I have create a new entity as your instructions stated. and I have checked my db that super admin has permission to this entity. but I am getting this

    HttpException in AuthorizesRequests.php line 74:
    This action is unauthorized.
    

    in controller function I have written like following

    $this->authorize('view', (new User()));
            $users = User::all();
            return view('backend.users.list')->with('users', $users);
    

    and my policy class is like following

    public function view(User $user, User $users)
        {
            return $this->validatePermissions($user, 'view', 'user', $users->created_by);
        }
    

    what I am missing?

    Reviewed by alvi1987 at 2015-10-10 10:52
  • 2. Fresh install, some issues.

    1. You are loading the Laravel Collective HTML/Form facades. So if you use governor package install instructions with a fresh install you will get this error messge :
    FatalErrorException in ProviderRepository.php line 146:
    Class 'Collective\Html\HtmlServiceProvider' not found
    

    Your install instructions need to reference the illuminate/html provider & facades or change your composer to pull down the LaravelCollective Forms&HTML provider. I recommend pulling down Laravel Collective version since the Illuminate\HTML version is being deprecated in Laravel.

    1. With this fresh install, and only the one user created, I get the Unauthorized Access message when I try to access any role. I checked that my user is logged in AND has the "SuperAdmin" role by doing a dd( \Auth::user() ) and dd( \Auth::user->roles() ) on the welcome page. Here is the output of that -
    {
    "id":1,
    "name":"testguy",
    "email":"[email protected]",
    "created_at":"2015-09-29 17:01:52",
    "updated_at":"2015-09-29 17:02:09",
    "created_by":null
    }
    [
     {
     "name":"SuperAdmin",
     "description":"This role is for the main administrator of your site. They will be able to do absolutely everything. (This role cannot be edited.)",
     "created_at":"2015-09-29 17:04:40",
     "updated_at":"2015-09-29 17:04:40",
     "created_by":null,
     "pivot":{
       "user_id":1,
       "role_key":"SuperAdmin"
       }
      }
     ]
    

    so it appears that it knows that my test user has the superadmin role, however the access is denied. Anything stand out?

    1. Shouldn't the roles use an id instead of a string as "role_key" for/in the pivot table? Integer tables are lower cost, and a standard I believe (and less prone to typos :smile: ).
    Reviewed by landjea at 2015-09-29 17:28
  • 3. Can add new role, edit name/description

    So I added a new role, and was able to edit the name/description on it but if I try to modify an action permission on either my new role or the existing "Members" role, I get an sql error about a missing field value. "ownership_key". I can see that the keys all exist in the permissions table.

    SQLSTATE[23000]: Integrity constraint violation: 1048 Column 'ownership_key' cannot be null (SQL: insert into `permissions` (`ownership_key`, `action_key`, `role_key`, `entity_key`, `created_by`, `updated_at`, `created_at`) values (, edit, test, assignment, 1, 2015-09-30 13:09:58, 2015-09-30 13:09:58))
    

    Again with that same fresh install from yesterday. My only change was to update composer.json to the "~0.1.0" version of laravel-governor as per other issue.

    I took a look at your included [email protected], which is throwing the error on $currentPermission->save();, and when I spit out the variables which showed $ownership = 'view any' and $currentOwnership = null.

    So it doesn't seem to be finding the $ownership using $currentOwnership = $allOwnerships->find($ownership); on line 109 of RolesController.

    Also, I don't fully understand your if statement in your foreach.

    foreach ($actions as $action => $ownership) {
                        if ('no' !== $ownership) {
    

    I have never seen it written like that before. At first I thought you had written the if check backwards (string to variable whereas I am always used to variable to string) but now I am thinking ... is that inverse writing the equivalent of a str_search? Is it a way to say: if $ownership does not contain the characters 'no' ?

    Reviewed by landjea at 2015-09-30 13:35
  • 4. Publish Views to allow them to be overwritten.

    Closes #15.

    The only caveat I can see with this is it will publish the default layout and master intermediary, but not update the views to reflect their new locations. (At least, I don't think Laravel can do that anyway...) Some kind of warning will need to be put in the documentation about that.

    Reviewed by mikemand at 2016-03-07 17:32
  • 5. Authoriztion in view partial

    I have created a partial view for navigation.

    so there is a link like following

    <li><a href="{!! URL::to('users') !!}">Users</a></li>
    

    if I want to use like

    @can @cannot for this like what should I do? passing User model instance from all controller function or is there any other way?

    Reviewed by alvi1987 at 2015-10-15 18:55
  • 6. I don't understand how you get the created_by attribute from a not-yet created entity?

    In your policies you also have a method for the create action. In which you pass an entity. But when someone is about to create an entity, it hasn't been created yet. And so the created_by attribute hasn't been set yet. So how do you do that in your own projects?

    Furthermore, with the created action, the ownership will always be 'own', right? So instead of doing this:

    class EntityPolicy extends LaravelGovernorPolicy
    {
        public function create($user, Entity $entity)
        {
            return $this->validatePermissions($user, 'create', 'entity', $entity->created_by);
        }
    }
    

    You could better do this, right?

    class EntityPolicy extends LaravelGovernorPolicy
    {
        public function create($user, Entity $entity)
        {
            return $this->validatePermissions($user, 'create', 'entity', $user->id);
        }
    }
    
    Reviewed by Evertt at 2015-09-29 10:15
  • 7. Can't see some emails when assigning roles

    This started happening recently on my production server. Everything works in terms of permissions, I just can't read which emails those actually are. Any things I should be looking for to help debug this?

    screen shot 2016-05-24 at 4 17 54 pm

    Reviewed by casenjo at 2016-05-24 23:19
  • 8. error generated after running package custom seeder file

    After running package's custom seeder following error generated. What is the remedy of this problem?

    Argument 1 passed to Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Relations\BelongsToMany::save() must be an instance of Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model, null given, called in D:\xampp\xampp\htdocs\eschool\vendor\genealabs\laravel-governor\database\seeds\LaravelGovernorRolesTableSeeder.php on line 19 and defined
    
    Reviewed by alvi1987 at 2015-10-03 22:16
  • 9. Update docs on website

    The docs at https://governor.forlaravel.com/ still describe GUI management for the Entity type, even though it was removed two months ago.

    Maybe those docs should be updated...

    Reviewed by kohenkatz at 2016-02-03 07:51
  • 10. Docs

    If your aim is for more advanced developers, ignore this suggestion, but it appears you are trying to make this very beginner friendly.

    Policies - you give a great example of a Model Policy but you don't explain anything about it for the beginner. Like if they need it, why they need it, where to put it, when to create it.

    Usage examples. Sure, they can open the vendor folder and check out how you do it, or the laravel docs for the @can information but, again, for those beginners, they aren't going to have any idea about that stuff so maybe a few usage examples would help them.

    Anyway, just some thoughts. Again, disregard if this package isn't intended for beginners.

    Thanks.

    Reviewed by landjea at 2015-10-01 14:58
  • 11. Fix error in script.js

    On update the role, if permissions [entitie] [action] is different of 'no' was returning this error:

    SQLSTATE[23000]: Integrity constraint violation: 1048 Column 'ownership_key' cannot be null.
    

    This pull request fixes the problem.

    Thank you

    Reviewed by joaosalless at 2015-09-16 15:22
  • 12. Update titasgailius/search-relations requirement from ^1.0 to ^2.0

    Updates the requirements on titasgailius/search-relations to permit the latest version.

    Release notes

    Sourced from titasgailius/search-relations's releases.

    Extending Search

    You may apply custom search logic for the specified relations by returning a class implementing a Search interface.

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  • 14. Update doctrine/dbal requirement from ^2.9 to ^3.1

    Updates the requirements on doctrine/dbal to permit the latest version.

    Release notes

    Sourced from doctrine/dbal's releases.

    3.1.0

    Release 3.1.0

    3.1.0

    • Total issues resolved: 3
    • Total pull requests resolved: 16
    • Total contributors: 5

    Deprecation,New Feature

    Deprecation,Documentation

    Deprecation,Documentation,Reserved Keywords

    Deprecation,Oracle,Schema Managers

    Error Handling,Improvement,Prepared Statements,oci8

    Deprecation,Improvement,QueryBuilder

    Deprecation

    Connections,Sequences,pdo_sqlsrv

    ... (truncated)

    Commits
    • 5ba62e7 Merge branch '3.0.x' into 3.1.x
    • 4dd066d Merge pull request #4610 from doctrine/2.13.x-merge-up-into-3.0.x_607db0f4870...
    • c800380 Merge pull request #4608 from morozov/shepherd
    • 05b7797 Attribute type coverage metric to 3.1.x instead of 2.13.x
    • 9fc431a Merge pull request #4604 from morozov/shepherd
    • 275131f Merge branch '3.0.x' into 3.1.x
    • 41d7dd9 Merge branch '2.13.x' into 3.0.x
    • a25bc6a Replace 2.12 with 2.13 in README
    • ef629cf Collect type coverage metrics, add badge to README
    • f4a801b Merge pull request #4596 from mdumoulin/fix_issue_4591
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  • 15. Implement Laravel 6 gate features with custom deny messaging.

    • https://laravel.com/docs/6.x/authorization#gate-responses
    • https://laravel.com/docs/6.x/authorization#policy-responses
    • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hfgcg09srSo at around 9:00
    Reviewed by mikebronner at 2019-12-25 20:47
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